Beginner's Glossary

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    a

    A

    Appreciation
    rise in value of one currency against another which has a floating rate.
    Arbitrage
    a type of trading with excepted risks, when opposite transactions are carried out simultaneously on the same trading instrument.
    Ask
    a price offered to a trader to buy currency.
    Aussie (or « Australian »)
    dealer's slang for Australian Dollar.


    b

    B

    Balance
    total result of all completed financial operations on a trading account.
    Balance of Trade (BoT)
    difference between the volumes of exported and imported goods for a certain period of time in a country.
    Bar Chart
    is an instrument of technical analysis; a chart where prices are indicated with the help of bars or lines.
    Base Currency
    currency which goes first in the currency quote.
    Bear
    a trader whose trading tactics counts on the decline in the currency value.
    Bear Market ("bearish market")
    a market which expects that currency rates will decline, « bearish market ».
    Beige Book
    collection of the Federal Reserve reports which contains a review of the U.S. economic dynamics.
    Benchmark interest rate
    minimum interest rate which investors expect when buying securities.
    Bid
    price offered to traders to sell currency.
    Bidder
    buyer.
    Big Figure
    dealer's slang to indicate currency pair movement by 100 points.
    Bilateral Netting
    A legally enforceable arrangement between a bank and a counter-party that creates a single legal obligation covering all included individual contracts. This means that a bank's obligation, in the event of the default or insolvency of one of the parties, would be the net sum of all positive and negative fair values of contracts included in the bilateral netting arrangement.
    Borrowing
    borrowing of foreign currency at interest for a certain period of time in the financial market.
    Break
    rapid decline in price.
    Breakout
    breakdown of the price below support level or above resistance level; breakdown of the trend line.
    Broker
    an agent who implements investors' orders to conduct currency selling/buying transactions.
    Brokerage Company
    a Brokerage, whose mission is to bring together a seller and a buyer of foreign currency.
    Bull
    a trader, whose trading tactics relies on the rise in currency price.
    Bull Market (« bullish market »)
    market that expects the rise in the currency rate.
    Buy
    currency purchase transaction.


    c

    C

    Cable
    dealer's slang for the British Pound.
    Cancel
    traders' order to cancel Stop-Loss and Take-Profit orders.
    Cancel-Replace
    order from a trader to a broker to cancel prior order with simultaneous replacement of the cancelled order with a new one.
    Cash Flow
    cash flow of the capital as a result of trading activity over a certain period of time.
    Cash Market
    a market where transactions are carried out at the prices specified through cash payment.
    Central Bank
    a financial institution which regulates monetary policy of a country.
    Change
    difference between the price of the trading tool and its price on the closing session on the day before.
    Chain Store Sales
    an economic indicator, showing retail sales dynamics.
    Channel
    area on the trading tool chart within limits of which price movements take place.
    Chart
    price chart, displaying changes in price over time.
    Chartist
    a trader who uses charts and technical analysis indicators as tools to forecast market price movements.
    Clearing
    trade settlement process.
    Close Order
    the order closing procedure.
    Collateral
    trader's insurance deposit.
    Confirmation
    situation on the technical analysis price chart when one or several indicators confirm the results of another indicator.
    Correction
    rollback of the price from the level reached.
    Convertible Currency
    national currency which can be freely exchanged (converted) into another currency without special approval from the Central Bank.
    Counter Currency
    quoted currency which appears second in the currency quote record.
    The legal and financial term for the other party in a financial transaction.
    Cross Rate
    a currency quote without direct involvement of the USD.
    Currency Conversion
    exchange of one currency for another, in a financial market.
    Currency Convertibility
    is the possibility of free exchange of one currency into another.
    Currency Option
    option contract which entitles a trader to buy or sell one currency for another at an agreed quote and within stipulated time frame.
    Currency Pair
    two indicated currencies which make up a quote at the financial market.
    Currency Rate
    price rate of one currency against another one.
    Currency Symbols
    letter symbols to indicate currency.
    Currency Trading
    trading operations to buy/sell one currency for another according to established rules.
    Cycle
    repetition of a certain pattern of price movement at time intervals.


    d

    D

    Day Order
    trader's order to buy or sell which is valid until the end of the trading day and is cancelled automatically in case of non-performance on the day of issue.
    Day Trader
    a trader who trades at the market during one day session.
    Day Trading
    opening and closing of the same position within one trading day.
    Dealer
    non-cash currency trading.
    Dealing
    a market where transactions are carried out at the prices specified through cash payment.
    Dealing center
    a company which provides access to financial markets by creating clients' applications for opening currency positions.
    Deposit
    amount of money transferred to the trader's account to cover further operations.
    Derivative
    A financial contract whose value is derived from the performance of assets, interest rates, currency exchange rates, or indexes. Derivative transactions include a wide assortment of financial contracts including structured debt obligations and deposits, swaps, futures, options, caps, floors, collars, forwards and various combinations thereof.
    Divergence
    a situation in technical analysis when charts of indicators differ from price chart.
    Direct Quote
    amount of foreign currency required to buy a unit of national currency.
    Downtick
    downward movement of currency price.
    Downtrend
    downward trend of currency price at the market.
    Double Top
    a pattern of technical analysis, displaying the situation when the rate goes up to a certain level twice and then descends.
    Double Bottom
    a pattern of technical analysis indicating the situation when the rate goes down to a certain level twice and then goes up.


    e

    E

    Economic Indicator
    is a fundamental analysis indicator, which shows general trends in economy.
    Exchange rate

    the rate of buying/selling one currency for another.

    Standardized derivative contracts that are transacted on an organized.



    f

    F

    Figure
    Dealer's slang to indicate basic figures of the exchange rate value or 100 points of the exchange rate movement.
    Flag
    is a pattern on a technical analysis chart indicating situation when currency price goes up significantly, and after that moves in a narrow range for some time, and then falls rapidly.
    Flat
    is a price which moves with no rises or falls.
    Float Profit/Loss
    amount of profit or loss on currently opened positions which is not fixed and is subject to change.
    Floor Broker
    a broker who takes part in trading on floor.
    Forecast
    Estimation of future trend of price movement, taking into account historical data of technical analysis and current macro-economic indicators.
    Foreign Exchange
    conversion operations of the foreign currency exchange.
    FOREX
    financial market where buyers and sellers carry out currency buying/selling transactions.
    Foreign Currency
    is a currency of any foreign country which can be used as a medium of circulation in another country.
    Forward Market
    « forward » currency market where currency transactions are concluded at the prices set today, but at a future time specified in the contract.
    Free Margin
    trader's funds on the deposit which are not used as a pledge to open positions.
    Fundamental Analysis
    is a method of forecasting price changes which is built up on the analysis of the current economic situation.


    g

    G

    G7
    are the most developed countries, including the USA, Japan, Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy and Canada, which meet periodically at summits to resolve the issues of the world economic development, « Big Seven ».
    Gap
    is a break on the price chart of technical analysis which is caused by the difference in opening price of a new day and the closing price the day before.
    Greenback
    « Greenback », dealer's slang for the U.S. Dollar.
    Gross negative fair value
    The sum of the fair values of contracts where the bank owes money to its counter-parties, without taking into account netting. This represents the maximum losses the bank's counter-parties would incur if the bank defaults and there is no netting of contracts, and no bank collateral was held by the counter-parties.
    Gross positive fair value
    The sum total of the fair values of contracts where the bank is owed money by its counter-parties, without taking into account netting. This represents the maximum losses a bank could incur if all its counter-parties default and there is no netting of contracts, and the bank holds no counter-party collateral.
    Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
    aggregate value of goods and services produced in a country in a certain period of time.
    Gross National Product (GNP)
    gross domestic product plus income, gained from investments or work performed overseas.


    h

    H

    Hedging
    strategy which is used to reduce investment risks when urgent selling/buying transactions are concluded.
    Hedgeable
    characteristic of a transaction when risk of changes in currency rate can be covered by hedging.
    High/Low
    respectively, the highest and the lowest currency prices during the current trading day.


    i

    I

    IFO
    business optimism index, calculated by the Institute of Economic Research in Germany.
    Indicator Only
    quotes which contain information and which are not used for opening currency positions.
    Indirect Quote
    cost per unit of domestic currency indicated in the foreign currency units.
    Indicator
    data which gives information on the general state of economy or financial markets.
    Industrial Production
    is an economic index, indicator of industrial production, which shows total output amount of national plants.
    Initial Margin
    value of initial deposit which shall be invested as a guarantee for transactions in the future.
    Interbank Rates
    currency rates set by large International Banks for the other large International Banks.
    Interest
    is the payment for using the money borrowed as a loan.
    Interest Rate
    is a sum of money which is credited or paid to a lender by a borrower for the use of money. It's calculated as the ratio of the payment for the use of money to the credit total amount. For instance, if a lender (bank) requires a client to pay $90 a year for the credit of $1000, the interest rate will make 9% (90/1000 * 100%). The interest rate can vary as a result of inflation or change of The Federal Reserve's policy.
    Intraday
    currency trading during one trading day.
    Instant Execution
    technology of instant transactions execution when streaming quotes are available in the online mode.
    Inflation
    rise of the general level of prices.
    Investor
    a holder of financial resources on whose behalf currency transactions are conducted at the currency market.

    j

    J

    There are no terms available.

    k

    K

    Knock-In Option A latent option contract that begins to function as a normal option ("knocks in") only once a certain price level is reached before expiration.
    Knock-Out Option
    An option with a built in mechanism to expire worthless, should a specified price level be exceeded. A knock-out option sets a cap to the level an option can reach, in favor of the holder. As knock-out options limit the profit potential for the option buyer, they can be purchased for a smaller premium than an equivalent option without a knock-out stipulation.


    l

    L

    Last
    average value of the last bid and ask values; the price of the last transaction.
    Leading Indicators
    index of the leading macro-economic indicators.
    Leverage
    ratio between one's own and borrowed money, used to conduct transaction.
    Limit order
    trader's order to open short or long position when the price reaches the target level.
    Liquidation
    closure of a trader's open currency position.
    Liquid Currency
    currency which can be bought or sold without restrictions at the world financial market.
    Liquidity
    is the ability to easily sell or buy security or currency.
    Long Position
    is currency purchase, when "buy" position is opened.
    Loss
    reduction in deposit amount due to losses.
    Lot
    the smallest indivisible volume of a selling/buying transaction, at the currency market.

    m

    M

    Maintenance Margin
    minimum amount on trader's deposit necessary to maintain his open positions.
    Margin
    is an insurance deposit which provides cover of possible losses of a marginal trade, and is used as a pledge.
    Margin Call
    a message from a dealing centre to a trader saying that it is necessary to increase funds on marginal account.
    Margin Level
    an indicator showing the state of a trader's trading account.
    Margin trading
    is currency trading supported by the margin pledge.
    Market Maker
    a large bank or financial company which has significant share of market operations and which exerts influence on the current level of currency rates.
    Market Maker Spread
    is a difference between the currency buying and selling price, established by a market maker.
    Market order
    an order which is not limited either by time period, or by price and which should be performed immediately at the best current price.
    Market Place
    physical market; a trading place.
    Market Price
    the last market price at which a transaction was conducted.
    Market Users
    medium sized bank or financial company which uses current quotes established by market makers, for currency operations.
    Minimum Equity
    minimum amount which a client has on his account.
    Momentum
    is a characteristic of a price movement; speed of change in currency price.

    n

    N

    Net Position

    total amount of currency for all open positions held by a trader.

    The nominal is used to calculate payments made on swaps and other risk management products. This amount generally does not change hands and is thus referred to as notional.


    o

    O

    Offer (or « ask »)
    is the price at which a buyer is requested to make a purchase.
    Old Lady
    is dealer's slang name for the Bank of England.
    Open order
    orders for open positions which will be performed when a declared currency price is reached.
    Open Position
    a position where transaction results are not yet recorded.
    Order
    trader's order to a broker to conduct currency selling/buying transaction at a specified price.
    Oscillator
    a technical analysis tool utilized by the market, to predict the future course of a currency.
    Output Index
    index of production volume output.
    Overbought
    a market situation which takes place after a rapid and significant currency rise.
    Oversold
    a situation in the market which happens after a rapid and significant currency decline.
    (OTC) derivative contracts
    Privately negotiated derivative contracts that are transacted off organized futures exchanges.

    p

    P

    Pips/Points
    minimum movement in a currency price.
    Position
    a number of opened "long" and "short" positions held by a trader.
    PPI
    index of producer prices (Producer Price Index).
    Premium
    a number of opened "long" and "short" positions held by a trader.
    Price Quotations
    quotes of one currency price against another currency.

    q

    Q

    Quotation
    the price of one currency, indicated in the units of another currency.

    r

    R

    Range
    difference between two prices.
    Resistance Level
    a horizontal or inclined price level on the chart; upper limit of price fluctuation.
    Retail Sales
    an indicator of the retail sales volume.
    Retracement
    correction of a trend, rollback of a trend for a certain value to an opposite direction, after which original movement is resumed.
    Roll-over
    the way of transferring Stop-Loss orders to more favourable positions.
    RSI (Relative Strength Index)
    technical indicator, which specifies oversold and overbought zones.

    s

    S

    Scalping
    prompt strategy of gaining profit with the help of insignificant changes of the currencies prices.
    Sell
    currency selling operation.
    Short
    open selling position.
    Short position
    an open position for selling currency with the intention to buy it in the future at a lower price.
    Spike
    significant difference between subsequent quote and its previous value.
    Spot
    transaction which is carried out immediately but with the payment made within two days from the moment of its conclusion.
    Spread
    difference between buying and selling prices of the currency, indicated in points.
    Square
    result of trader's transactions at which profit size is equal to the losses size.
    Sterling
    dealer's slang for the British Pound.
    Stop Оrder
    currency buy or sell order when a specified price level is reached.
    Stop Limit
    pending orders; execution of the order is delayed by a dealer until the price at the market reaches the level, specified in the order.
    Stop Loss
    order to close positions to limit losses.
    Support Level
    horizontal or inclined price level on the chart; upper limit of price fluctuation.
    Swap
    funds that are retained or added to a trader's account for rollover to the next day.
    Swap points
    points calculated in advance for transferring open position to the next day with the help of swap operation.

    t

    T

    Take-profit
    currency sell/buy order for the open position at a specified price to gain profit.
    Technical Analysis
    is a method of forecasting future price direction with the help of price charts examination.
    Tick
    minimum one time change of a trading tool price, in the financial markets.
    Tick chart
    price chart built on the ticks values.
    Thin Market
    market with low liquidity.
    Today's High
    highest price of a transaction today.
    Today's Low
    lowest price of a transaction today.
    Trader
    a person who buys and sells currencies from his personal account.
    Trade Balance
    trade balance is the difference between export and import values over a certain period of time.
    Trading
    securities or currency trading.
    Trading platform
    a set of software and hardware supporting trading in the market.
    Trailing-stop
    order to minimize losses.
    Transaction
    an operation of opening and closing of a currency position.
    Transaction Cost
    payment for buying or selling of a financial tool.
    Transaction Date
    the date of currency transaction operation.
    Trend
    a term of technical analysis, indicating general direction of the price movement.
    Trend Line
    straight line on a price chart drawn across the minimum values (in case of ascending trend) or across maximum values (in case of descending trend).

    u

    U

    Uptick
    new price quote which is higher than previous price.
    Uptrend
    ascending price trend, "bullish" trend.

    v

    V

    Value Date
    the date when transaction terms are implemented.
    Volatility
    the speed at which price moves.
    Volume
    activity level of currency trading.
    Volumes chart
    is a bar chart that shows the volume of conducted transactions.

    w

    W

    Wholesale Prices
    is a macro-economic index of changes in wholesale prices.
    Wholesale Trade
    is a macro-economic index of changes in wholesale sales.

    x

    X

    There are no terms available.

    y

    Y

    Yard
    means a billion US Dollars, in dealer's slang.
    Yours
    means "sold".

    z

    Z

    ZEW
    The Center of European economic research - non-commercial research institute founded in1990, which is located in Hamburg.